By Q. Candela. Coastal Carolina University. 2018.
In Chiari II malformations order silagra 100 mg with amex, the lower brainstem silagra 50mg fast delivery, inferior cerebellar hemi- spheres, cerebellar vermis, and cerebellar tonsils descend through the foramen mag- num. Chiari II malformations are associated with myelomeningocele and spina biﬁda. For this reason, these patients often have associated hydrocephalus and=or tethered spinal cords that can exacerbate the symptoms related to the Chiari II Table 1 Classiﬁcation of Chiari Malformations Type I Displacement of cerebellar tonsils below foramen magnum Type II Displacement of the cerebellar vermis, fourth ventricle, and lower brainstem below foramen magnum Type III Displacement of cerebellum and brainstem into a high cervical meningocele Type IV Cerebellar hypoplasia 43 44 Weingart malformation and thus must be evaluated when considering the best treatment for a patient. The clinical presentation of children with Chiari I or II malformations varies depending on the age of the child and the presence of other associated ﬁndings such as syringomyelia, hydrocephalus, or tethered cord. The treatment is symp- tom-driven; that is, asymptomatic patients, in general, do not need treatment. CLINICAL PRESENTATION The symptoms and signs are varied and age-dependent (Table 2) and secondary to cranial nerve dysfunction, cerebellar dysfunction, and=or spinal cord dysfunction usually secondary to a syrinx. A syrinx is a ﬂuid ﬁlled cavity within the spinal cord that develops in the setting of a Chiari malformation secondary to the obstruction of CSF ﬂow at the foramen magnum. Symptom complexes in individual patients may vary despite similar anatomy on the MRI. The majority of children born with a myelomeningocele will also have a Chiari II malformation and hydrocephalus. Brainstem and cranial nerve dysfunction can produce apneic episodes and respiratory compromise, the former occurring in association with agitation. Examination reveals nystagmus, spasticity in the upper extremities, and ﬁxed neck Table 2 Clinical Signs and Symptoms in Children with Chiari Malformations Chiari I Chiari II Infant Stridor Apnea-episodic Decreased gag reﬂex Aspiration Fixed neck extension (retrocollis) Weak cry Nystagmus Increased tone Upper extremity weakness Childhood Headache Headache Neck pain Neck pain Ataxia or balance problems Nystagmus Scoliosis Increased tone Upper extremity weakness Aspiration GE reﬂux Decreased cough reﬂux Adolescence Headache Neck pain Ataxia or balance problems Scoliosis Suspended sensory loss (due to syrinx) Hand or arm atrophy Chiari Malformations 45 extension or retrocollis. These children often have other health problems and are failing to thrive, which can make evaluation difﬁcult and the clinical picture confus- ing. Despite surgery in this patient group, many of these children continue with symptom progression and die due to progressive disease. It is essential to rule out hydrocephalus or shunt malfunction in a symptomatic infant as treatment of the hydrocephalus can reverse the clinical course. Although sequelae of cranial nerve dysfunction, such as aspiration or recurrent pneumonia, can be seen, motor symptoms become more common. These include an impact on motor development of the upper extremities and the appearance of spasticity. As the child gains language function, headache or neck pain become more common. The charac- ter of the headache is fairly consistent between Type I and II malformations and across ages. The pain can radiate to behind the eyes and is often described as a feeling of pressure. Exer- cise, straining, coughing, or any valsalva maneuver will bring on the pain, which tends to pass over a short period of time. Not uncommonly, parents note complaints of headache or pain during upper respiratory infection or asthma attacks. Since headaches in patients with Chiari malformations can occur in other locations on the head, one should not dismiss the diagnosis of this disorder just because the headache is atypical. In middle and late childhood, the clinical presentation is very similar to ado- lescence. These symptoms include sensory loss, hand and arm weakness, change in leg function, and extremity or torso pain that is often burning in character. The radiological evaluation should include at least the brain and cervical spine. Similarly, in a patient with scoliosis and a Chiari malformation, the entire spine should be imaged. The purpose of this extensive ima- ging evaluation is to evaluate for hydrocephalus, syrinx, tethered spinal cord, or other skull base anomalies associated with Chiari malformations. An additional helpful study is a cine-MRI that evaluates CSF ﬂow across the foramen magnum. In patients with Chiari malformations, the reduced ﬂow is found posterior to the cerebellum. The radiological evaluation is important because it helps guide the proposed treatment that may address associated ﬁndings rather than the Chiari malformation itself. TREATMENT The decision to treat, when to treat, and what to treat is very dependent on the sever- ity of the symptoms and the clinical presentation. For patients in whom pain or headache is the only symptom, medical management is the ﬁrst line of therapy (see Chapter 20 on headaches). In patients who fail medical management or who have loss of neurologic function, surgical management is indicated. Accepted procedures range from a bony decom- pression only to a bony decompression with dural patch grafting, intradural dissec- tion, and tonsillar manipulation. In a 1998 survey of pediatric neurosurgeons, 81% of respondents favored observation with yearly neurological exams and MRI scans.
Organise for the paper to be word- processed silagra 50 mg on-line, with suitable instructions about the format required and the need for security generic silagra 50mg visa. At the same time make sure that the ‘Instructions to Students’ section at the beginning of the paper is clear and accurate. Check and recheck the copy as errors are almost invariably discovered during the examination, a cause of much consternation. Finally, have the paper printed and arrange for secure storage until the time of the examination. Scoring and analysing an objective test The main advantage of the objective type tests is the rapidity with which scoring can be done. This requires some attention to the manner in which the students are to answer the questions. It is usually inappropriate to have the students mark their answers on the paper itself. When large numbers are involved a separate structured sheet should be used. Where facilities are available it is convenient to use answer sheets that can be directly scored by computer or for responses to be entered directly into a computer by students. An overlay is produced by cutting out the positions of the correct responses. This can then be placed over the student’s answer sheet and the correct responses are easily and rapidly counted. Before doing so ensure that the student has not marked more than one answer correct! In most major medical examinations a computer will be used to score and analyse objective-type examinations. You must therefore be familiar with the process and be able to interpret the subsequent results. The computer programme will generally provide statistical data about the examination including a reliability coefficient for internal consistency, a mean and standard deviation for the class and analyses of individual items. Should you be 147 the person responsible for the examination you will need to know how to interpret this information in order to process the examination results and to help improve subsequent examinations. If you are not familiar with these aspects we strongly suggest you seek expert advice or consult one of the books on educational measurement listed at the end of the chapter. DIRECT OBSERVATION Direct observation of the student performing a technical or an interpersonal skill in the real, simulated or examination setting would appear to be the most valid way of assessing such skills. Unfortunately, the reliability of these observa- tions is likely to be seriously low. This is particularly so in the complex interpersonal area where no alternative form of assessment is available. Nevertheless, in professional courses it is essential to continue to make assessments of the student’s performance, not least to indicate to the student your commitment to these vital skills. In doing so, you would be well advised to use the information predominantly for feedback rather than for important decision-making. Various ways have been suggested by which these limitations might be minimised. One it to improve the method of scoring and another is to improve the performance of the observer. Evidence suggests that the reliability of a checklist decreases when there are more than four points on the scale. The assessor has to decide whether each component on the list is present/absent; adequate/inadequate; satisfactory/unsatis- factory. Only if each component is very clearly defined and readily observable can a checklist be reliable. The essential feature is that the observer is required to make a judgement along a scale which may be continuous or intermittent. They are widely used to assess behaviour or performance because no other methods are usually available, but the subjectivity of the assessment is an unavoidable problem. Because of this, multiple independent ratings of the same student undertaking the same activity are essential if any sort of justice is to be done. They are derived from published formats used to obtain information about ward performance of trainee doctors. The component skill being assessed is ‘Obtaining the data base’ and only one sub-component (obtaining information from the patient) is illustrated. The first is that there is an attempt to provide descriptive anchor points which may be helpful in clarifying for the observer what standards should be applied. In a study we undertook, it was the format most frequently preferred by experienced clinical raters. Improving the performance of the observer It has often been claimed that training of raters will improve reliability. This seems to make sense but what evidence there is shows that training makes remarkably little difference!
The procedure has signiﬁcant postoperative patellofemoral pain and stiffness generic silagra 50 mg with mastercard. This may be reduced with aggressive rehabilitation to regain extension and to mobilize the patella silagra 100mg line. The disadvantages are the variable graft size and longer time to return to sports. The author is suggesting that the surgeon should have more than one option available to offer to the patient. The more important issue in ACL reconstruction is not the graft choice, but is in placing the tunnels in the correct position (Fig. There are several guides available for both the tibial and the femoral tunnels that help the surgeon place the guide wire in the proper posi- tion. At that time, if the surgeon is not sure of the positioning, then the ﬂuoroscopy can be used to determine the correct position. The assessment of the outcome of the treatment should be done by both subjective and objective functional outcome measurements. Several measurement scales are available, such as the International Knee Documentation Committee form or IKDC. When the outcome measurements are made on this scale, they can be interpreted by anyone. At the present time, only 43% of the members of the ACL study group use this form; most say that the form is not user friendly. We must continue to strive for a universal system that will make it easier to judge the success of different types of treatment of the ACL injured knee. The Future The current surgical technique of autogenous graft harvest, with tunnel preparation, will change very little. The changes will come in the evo- lution of graft ﬁxation with bioabsorbable materials. The graft of the future will be a synthetic collagen scaffold selected off the shelf and injected with ﬁbroblastic cells to produce collagen in vivo. The profession will look back on the patellar tendon not as the gold standard, but as a barbaric procedure! Patellofemoral problems after intraarticular anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Patellar tendon versus doubled semitendinosus and gracilis tendons for anterior cruciate ligament recon- struction. Knee injury patterns among men and women in collegiate basketball and soccer. Flipped patellar tendon autograft anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Comparison of patella tendon versus patella tendon/Kennedy ligament augmentation device for anterior cruciate liga- ment reconstruction: study of results, morbidity, and complications. Long-term follow-up of 53 cases of chronic lesion of the anterior cruciate ligament treated with an artiﬁcial Dacron Stryker ligament. A comparison of results in middle-aged and young patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The use of hamstring tendons for ante- rior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The natural history of conservatively treated partial anterior cruciate ligament tears. Quadrupled semitendinosus anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: 5-year results in patients without meniscus loss. In: Knee Ligaments: Structure, Function, Injury, and Repair, Akeson WHA, Daniel DM, and O’Connor JJ (eds. Patellar tendon or Leeds-Keio graft in the surgical treatment of anterior cruciate ligament ruptures. A method to help reduce the risk of serious knee sprains incurred in alpine skiing. The natural history and diagnosis of anterior cruciate lig- ament insufﬁciency. Semitendinosus tendon anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with LAD augmentation. Follow-up study of Gore-Tex artiﬁcial ligament– special emphasis on tunnel osteolysis. An alternative cruciate reconstruction graft: The central quadriceps tendon. Noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries: risk factors and prevention strategies.